This Jean Monnet Module “Hybrid Warfare” aims to move forward our understanding of it and its forms. The ICPS as a successful research centre has a strong record in high quality research and academic development on policing and security issues through holistic inter-disciplinary studies and engagement. The Jean Monnet Module recognizes and advances this excellence to EU security. This module on hybrid warfare provides research-led excellence in teaching and learning directed not only to issues effecting the Digital Single Market but also fundamental areas of EU, NATO and national policy within the remit of cybersecurity. The module is titled and directed to addressing hybrid warfare and a specific country focus on Russia and China as they pose the greatest threats through state-on-state campaigns.

Currently there are few dedicated courses on ‘hybrid threats’ offered at Western universities. This module seeks to increase this understanding in response to the European Council’s call for “enhanced common action” against hybrid threats. The objective is to dissect and analyse the underlying theories and their use through orchestrated campaigns by advancing cutting-edge blended learning formats, distance-learning, strong inter-disciplinarity, and policy relevant discussions and mitigations by creating a highly-specialist module that will contribute to the new Masters programme in International Security in Europe by distance learning – the first such Masters programme in Wales and the UK, and one of the very few in Europe as a whole.


  1. To identify and analyse hybrid threats; to discuss and interpret the evolution of and doctrines underlying hybrid warfare tactics; to understand that strategies in the ‘grey zone’ beneath the threshold recognised as war under international law is challenging responses. Cyber influence operations are part of this as are attacks on the defence-industrial base and critical infrastructure, but the modus operandi is much wider. Responses have ranged from economic and travel sanctions to diplomatic expulsions and attempts at criminal prosecutions. Understanding their effectiveness or lack of effectiveness alongside other measures such as like-for-like responses, shoot-back, signalling and red lines forms part of our proposal.
  2. To engage students, academics, policy-makers/practitioners/decision makers in a clear-minded, forward footed dialogue on an area of EU security that impacts free and open societies of liberal-democracies but is evident also in authoritarian regime types. Hybrid warfare is having tangible impacts across Europe and effects European security, European cohesion that, ultimately, is negatively affecting the integration process across the Euro-Atlantic space and Europe’s border areas and does not recognise or need to operate within geographical boundaries.
  3. To strengthen the research-led teaching and academic services of the ICPS by offering regular, interactive and contemporary debating activities on key EU policy areas including the Digital Single Market, cybersecurity toolbox, and Cybersecurity Technology and Capacity Building. It cross-compares different national and international approaches and dialogue on hybrid warfare and cybersecurity more widely.
  4. To viably expand upon the ICPS’ original status, using the module to increase the visibility of the centre among students, policy-makers and the wider, general public, through public events, publications and Internet with social media engagement based on the contents of the module.